UGV Parking Planning Based on Swarm Optimization and Improved CBS in High-Density Scenarios for Innovative Urban Mobility


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The existence of information silos between vehicles and parking lots means that Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) repeatedly drive to seek available parking slots, resulting in wasted resources, time consumption and traffic congestion, especially in high-density parking scenarios. To address this problem, a novel UGV parking planning method is proposed in this paper, which consists of cooperative path planning, conflict resolution strategy, and optimal parking slot allocation, intending to avoid ineffective parking seeking by vehicles and releasing urban traffic pressure. Firstly, the parking lot induction model was established and the IACA-IA was developed for optimal parking allocation. The IACA-IA was generated using the improved ant colony algorithm (IACA) and immunity algorithm. Compared with the first-come-first-served algorithm (FCFS), the normal ant colony algorithm (NACA), and the immunity algorithm (IA), the IACA-IA was able to allocate optimal slots at a lower cost and in less time in complex scenarios with multi-entrance parking lots. Secondly, an improved conflict-based search algorithm (ICBS) was designed to efficiently resolve the conflict of simultaneous path planning for UGVs. The dual-layer objective expansion strategy is the core of the ICBS, which takes the total path cost of UGVs in the extended constraint tree as the first layer objective, and the optimal driving characteristics of a single UGV as the second layer objective. Finally, three kinds of load-balancing and unbalanced parking scenarios were constructed to test the proposed method, and the performance of the algorithm was demonstrated from three aspects, including computation, quality and timeliness. The results show that the proposed method requires less computation, has higher path quality, and is less time-consuming in high-density scenarios, which provide a reasonable and efficient solution for innovative urban mobility.
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Key words
innovative urban mobility,swarm optimization,high-density
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