Transformation of 2D Flakes to 3D Hollow Bowls: Matthew Effect Enables Defects to Prevail in Electromagnetic Wave Absorption of Hollow rGO Bowls.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)(2023)

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High-efficiency electromagnetic (EM) wave (EMW)-absorbing materials have attracted extensive scientific and technical interest. Although identifying the dominant EM loss mechanism in dielectric-loss materials is indispensable, it is challenging due to a complex synergism between dipole/interfacial polarization and conduction loss. Modulation of defects and microstructures can be a possible approach to determine the dominant EM loss mechanism and realize high-efficiency absorption. Herein, 2D reduced graphene oxide (rGO) flakes are integrated into a 3D hollow bowl-like structure, which increases defect sites (i.e., oxygen vacancy and lattice defect) and reduces the stacked thickness of rGO. Despite their lower stacked thicknesses, the hollow rGO bowls with more defects exhibit lower conductivities but higher permittivities. Accompanied by the transformation from 2D flakes to 3D hollow bowls, the dominant EM loss mechanism of rGO transforms from conduction loss to defect-induced polarization. Furthermore, the defect engineering and structural design endow rGO with well-matched impedance and strong EMW-absorbing capacity. A minimum reflection loss of -41.6 dB (1.3 mm) and an effective absorption bandwidth of 4.8 GHz (1.5 mm) is achieved at a filler loading of 5 wt%. This study will provide meaningful insights into the development of materials with superior EMW-absorbing performances via defect engineering and structural design.
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