Expansion of Betatorquevirus and/or Gammatorquevirus in Patients with Severe Clinical Outcomes of the Liver Diseases.


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Anellovirus (AV) is a ubiquitous virus in the human population. Individuals can be infected with multiple AV genera and species to form a heterogeneous repertoire, termed the anellome. Using advanced methods, we examined the anellomes from 12 paired serum and liver samples, as well as 2701 subjects with different clinical diagnoses. Overall, anellomes are remarkably individualized, with significant among-group differences (Kruskal-Wallis test = 6.6 × 10 for richness and = 7.48 × 10 for Shannon entropy). High dissimilarity scores (beta diversity) were observed between patient groups, except for paired serum and liver samples. At the population level, the relative abundance of combinational AV genus (torque teno mini viruses, TTMV), and (torque teno midi viruses, TTMDV) exhibited an exponential distribution with a low bound point at 32%. Defined by this value, the AV TTMV/TTMDV-expanded anellome was significantly enriched among patients with acute liver failure (31.7%) and liver transplantation (40.7%), compared with other patient groups (χ test: = 4.1 × 10-3.2 × 10). Therefore, anellome heterogeneity may be predictive of clinical outcomes in certain diseases, such as liver disease. The consistency of anellome between paired serum and liver samples indicates that a liquid biopsy approach would be suitable for longitudinal studies to clarify the causality of the AV TTMV/TTMDV-expanded anellome in the outcomes of liver disease.
anellovirus,hepatitis C virus,hepatocellular carcinoma,next-generation sequencing,virome
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