Integration of persistent Laplacian and pre-trained transformer for protein solubility changes upon mutation

COMPUTERS IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE(2024)

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Abstract
Protein mutations can significantly influence protein solubility, which results in altered protein functions and leads to various diseases. Despite tremendous effort, machine learning prediction of protein solubility changes upon mutation remains a challenging task as indicated by the poor scores of normalized Correct Prediction Ratio (CPR). Part of the challenge stems from the fact that there is no three-dimensional (3D) structures for the wild -type and mutant proteins. This work integrates persistent Laplacians and pre -trained Transformer for the task. The Transformer, pretrained with hundreds of millions of protein sequences, embeds wild -type and mutant sequences, while persistent Laplacians track the topological invariant change and homotopic shape evolution induced by mutations in 3D protein structures, which are rendered from AlphaFold2. The resulting machine learning model was trained on an extensive data set labeled with three solubility types. Our model outperforms all existing predictive methods and improves the state-of-the-art up to 15%.
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Key words
Mutation,Protein solubility,Persistent Laplacian,Transformer,AlphaFold2
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