Understanding the effect of fermentation time on physicochemical characteristics, sensory attributes, and volatile compounds in green tea kombucha


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Kombuchas are a trend in the fermented beverage field and the effect of fermentation time on their characteristics is necessary to better understand the process, mainly concerning volatile compounds, which are scarce information in the current literature. Thus, the present work aimed to evaluate the features of green tea kombucha during fermentation, monitoring the changes in pH, acidity, turbidity, polyphenols, ethanol, acetic acid, volatile compounds, and sensory profile and acceptance up to 14 days of fermentation. Kombuchas' pH and acidity decreased through time as expected, but after 4 days of fermentation, the beverage exceeded the Brazilian legal limits of acidity (130 mEq/L) and produced more than 0.5% AVB, which labels the beverage as alcoholic. Total polyphenols and condensed tannins content enhanced until the seventh day of fermentation and remained constant. Fermentation highly impacted the aroma of the infusion with a high formation of volatile acids, such as alcohols, esters, and ketones. Aldehydes were degraded during the bioprocess. Sensory characterization of kombucha showed that fermentation of 4 days increased perceived turbidity; vinegar, citric fruit, acid, and alcoholic aroma; and produced the beverage with sour, bitter, and vinegar flavor. Thus, the fermentation time of kombuchas must be controlled as they rapidly change and impact on the physicochemical parameters and sensory profile of the beverage can be negative.
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Key words
green tea,fermentation time,physicochemical characteristics,volatile compounds
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