Atomique: A Quantum Compiler for Reconfigurable Neutral Atom Arrays

arxiv(2023)

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Abstract
The neutral atom array has gained prominence in quantum computing for its scalability and operation fidelity. Previous works focus on fixed atom arrays (FAAs) that require extensive SWAP operations for long-range interactions. This work explores a novel architecture reconfigurable atom arrays (RAAs), also known as field programmable qubit arrays (FPQAs), which allows for coherent atom movements during circuit execution under some constraints. Such atom movements, which are unique to this architecture, could reduce the cost of long-range interactions significantly if the atom movements could be scheduled strategically. In this work, we introduce Atomique, a compilation framework designed for qubit mapping, atom movement, and gate scheduling for RAA. Atomique contains a qubit-array mapper to decide the coarse-grained mapping of the qubits to arrays, leveraging MAX k-Cut on a constructed gate frequency graph to minimize SWAP overhead. Subsequently, a qubit-atom mapper determines the fine-grained mapping of qubits to specific atoms in the array and considers load balance to prevent hardware constraint violations. We further propose a router that identifies parallel gates, schedules them simultaneously, and reduces depth. We evaluate Atomique across 20+ diverse benchmarks, including generic circuits (arbitrary, QASMBench, SupermarQ), quantum simulation, and QAOA circuits. Atomique consistently outperforms IBM Superconducting, FAA with long-range gates, and FAA with rectangular and triangular topologies, achieving significant reductions in depth and the number of two-qubit gates.
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