Author Correction: Predicting Bordeaux red wine origins and vintages from raw gas chromatograms

Communications Chemistry(2024)

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Abstract
Connecting chemical properties to various wine characteristics is of great interest to the science of olfaction as well as the wine industry. We explored whether Bordeaux wine chemical identities and vintages (harvest year) can be inferred from a common and affordable chemical analysis, namely, a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and electron ionization mass spectrometry. Using 12 vintages (within the 1990-2007 range) from 7 estates of the Bordeaux region, we report that, remarkably, nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques applied to raw gas chromatograms recover the geography of the Bordeaux region. Using machine learning, we found that we can not only recover the estate perfectly from gas chromatograms, but also the vintage with up to 50% accuracy. Interestingly, we observed that the entire chromatogram is informative with respect to geographic location and age, thus suggesting that the chemical identity of a wine is not defined by just a few molecules but is distributed over a large chemical spectrum. This study demonstrates the remarkable potential of GC analysis to explore fundamental questions about the origin and age of wine. Gas chromatography is a useful tool to identify and characterize wines, usually by selecting some compounds for a particular classification problem, yet, with limited success. Here, the authors decode the estates perfectly and age 50% correctly of twelve red Bordeaux wines from unrestricted, raw gas chromatograms using machine learning.
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