Numerical study on thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a inclined mini-channel for solar PV panel cooling with external magnetic field and magnetic nanofluid

JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS(2024)

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Abstract
A pronounced demand for compact heat exchangers exists within the electronics and HVAC sectors. The current computational research meticulously analyzes how the implementation of magnetic nanofluid and the applica-tion of an external magnetic field impact the thermal performance of a compact inclined heat exchanger. A magnetic nanofluid comprising a 2 % volume fraction of TiO2 nanoparticles dissolved in pure water is utilized. The investigation involved altering the channel angle from 0 degrees to 90 degrees and encompassed Reynolds numbers ranging from 150 to 190, coupled with variations in magnetic intensities from 0 G to 2000 G. At 0 degrees angular position, the Nusselt number experiences incremental enhancements of 33.04 %, 28.65 %, and 24.75 % across Reynolds numbers of 150, 170, and 190, respectively, when transitioning from 0G to 2000G. Similarly, at a 45-degree angular position, there are improvements of 18.50 %, 16.41 %, and 14.44 % for Reynolds numbers of 150, 170, and 190, respectively, under the same 0G to 2000G transition. Moreover, at a 90-degree angular position, improvements of 16.13 %, 14.30 %, and 12.60 % are observed for Reynolds numbers of 150, 170, and 190, respectively, within the 0G to 2000G transition. Additionally, at 0 degrees angular position, skin friction experiences incremental enhancements of 117.55 %, 95.77 %, and 79.65 % across Reynolds numbers of 150, 170, and 190, respectively, upon transitioning from 0G to 2000G. Similarly, at a 45-degree angular position, skin friction demonstrates improvements of 60.39 %, 52.79 %, and 47.44 % for Reynolds numbers of 150, 170, and 190, respectively, under the same 0G to 2000G transition. Furthermore, at a 90-degree angular position, skin friction showcases improvements of 50.26 %, 45.06 %, and 41.47 % for Reynolds numbers of 150, 170, and 190, respectively, within the 0G to 2000G transition. The thermal performance factor decreased with an augmented angle of inclination, while it increased with escalating intensities of the external magnetic field. Furthermore, the study revealed that the temperature performance coefficient surpassed unity for lower inclinations when a magnetic field intensity of 1500G was applied. This coefficient remained above unity across all angles when a magnetic field of 2000G was utilized.
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Key words
Magneto hydrodynamics,Heat transfer,Magnetic nanofluid,Electronic cooling,Titanium oxide
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