Procrustean entanglement concentration in quantum-classical networking

Physical Review Applied(2024)

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Abstract
The success of a future quantum internet will rest in part on the ability of quantum and classical signals to coexist in the same optical fiber infrastructure, a challenging endeavor given the orders of magnitude differences in flux of single-photon-level quantum fields and bright classical traffic. We theoretically describe and experimentally implement Procrustean entanglement concentration for polarization-entangled states contaminated with classical light, showing significant mitigation of crosstalk noise in dense wavelength-division multiplexing. Our approach leverages a pair of polarization-dependent loss emulators to attenuate highly polarized crosstalk that results from imperfect isolation of conventional signals copropagating on shared fiber links. We demonstrate our technique both on the tabletop and over a deployed quantum local area network, finding a substantial improvement of two-qubit entangled state fidelity from approximately 75\% to over 92\%. This local filtering technique could be used as a preliminary step to reduce asymmetric errors, potentially improving the overall efficiency when combined with more complex error mitigation techniques in future quantum repeater networks.
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