Gas mass transfer characteristics in shales: Insights from multiple flow mechanisms, effective viscosity, and poromechanics

GAS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING(2024)

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Abstract
Accurate characterization of gas transport behavior is indispensable for successful shale gas reservoir development. In this study, a fractal-theory-based apparent permeability (AP) model is developed to better characterize real gas mass transfer in shales. The proposed model involves multi-scale organic matter (OM) and inorganic matter (IOM) flow channels and incorporates poromechanics-related dynamic pore size, multiple gas transport mechanisms, and dynamic viscosity. The discrete integration method (DIM) is employed to address viscosity changes during fractal scaling up. Experimental data, molecular dynamics simulations, and published theoretical models were used to verify the proposed model and reasonable agreements have been achieved. Results indicate that as the pore pressure and size increase, dominant mechanisms for gas transport change from surface diffusion at low pressure (lower than switch pressure) to viscous flow at higher pressure and larger pore sizes. Furthermore, higher organic matter content makes the permeability curve more similar to OM type. Ignoring effective viscosity results in underestimation of permeability, which is more noticeable when pressure rises and pore shrinks. Poromechanical properties primarily affect pore size, larger elastic modulus and smaller Poisson ' s ratio leads to significantly lower permeability. The real gas effect on AP reduction cannot be ignored, especially at high pressure. This work provides insights into the gas transport characteristics in shales, which have practical implications for shale gas reservoir simulation and development.
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Key words
Shale gas,Fractal theory,Gas mass transfer,Multiple mechanisms,Poromechanics,Dynamic viscosity
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