Plasma and urine proteomics and gut microbiota analysis reveal potential factors affecting COVID-19 vaccination response.


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The efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination relies on the induction of neutralizing antibodies, which can vary among vaccine recipients. In this study, we investigated the potential factors affecting the neutralizing antibody response by combining plasma and urine proteomics and gut microbiota analysis. We found that activation of the LXR/FXR pathway in plasma was associated with the production of ACE2-RBD-inhibiting antibodies, while urine proteins related to complement system, acute phase response signaling, LXR/FXR, and STAT3 pathways were correlated with neutralizing antibody production. Moreover, we observed a correlation between the gut microbiota and plasma and urine proteins, as well as the vaccination response. Based on the above data, we built a predictive model for vaccination response (AUC = 0.85). Our study provides insights into characteristic plasma and urine proteins and gut microbiota associated with the ACE2-RBD-inhibiting antibodies, which could benefit our understanding of the host response to COVID-19 vaccination.
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Health sciences,Immunity,Microbiology,Experimental models in systems biology,Proteomics
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