Structural Differences between Morning and Evening Peak in Optimized Water Heaters.

IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference(2024)

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Abstract
Peak reduction is an important concern that can help reduce the growing stress on distribution grids and allow to defer investments in new capacity. Water heaters represent a convenient way of reducing peak, depending on controllability of devices. But while controlling water heaters does allow to shift peak, it also results in rebound effects, which require additional understanding before water heater fleets can be used on a large scale. We attempt to investigate the nature of peak behaviors of water heaters and demonstrate that water heaters are not homogenous in their behavior. Depending on the overall intensity of the use of water, part of the population has higher rebound effect, while part of the population has little or no rebound effect. Even though we do not have sufficient data to statistically evaluate our findings, we use a sample of 42 water heaters in a connected neighborhood to provide an early attempt at discovering and reporting this diversity.
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Key words
Demand response,smart grid,peak shifting,water heater
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