First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring

The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration (See the end matter for the full list of authors.), The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration,Kazunori Akiyama,Antxon Alberdi, Walter Alef,Juan Carlos Algaba,Richard Anantua,Keiichi Asada,Rebecca Azulay, Uwe Bach,Anne-Kathrin Baczko,David Ball,Mislav Balokovic,Bidisha Bandyopadhyay,John Barrett,Michi Bauböck,Bradford A. Benson,Dan Bintley,Lindy Blackburn, Raymond Blundell, Katherine L. Bouman,Geoffrey C. Bower,Hope Boyce, Michael Bremer,Christiaan D. Brinkerink,Roger Brissenden, Silke Britzen,Avery E. Broderick, Dominique Broguiere,Thomas Bronzwaer,Sandra Bustamante,Do-Young Byun,John E. Carlstrom,Chiara Ceccobello,Andrew Chael,Chi-kwan Chan,Dominic O. Chang,Koushik Chatterjee,Shami Chatterjee,Ming-Tang Chen, Yongjun Chen,Xiaopeng Cheng,Ilje Cho,Pierre Christian,Nicholas S. Conroy,John E. Conway,James M. Cordes,Thomas M. Crawford,Geoffrey B. Crew,Alejandro Cruz-Osorio,Yuzhu Cui,Rohan Dahale,Jordy Davelaar,Mariafelicia De Laurentis,Roger Deane,Jessica Dempsey,Gregory Desvignes,Jason Dexter,Vedant Dhruv,Indu K. Dihingia,Sheperd S. Doeleman,Sean Taylor Dougal, Sergio A. Dzib,Ralph P. Eatough,Razieh Emami, Heino Falcke,Joseph Farah,Vincent L. Fish, Edward Fomalont, H. Alyson Ford, Marianna Foschi,Raquel Fraga-Encinas, William T. Freeman,Per Friberg,Christian M. Fromm,Antonio Fuentes,Peter Galison,Charles F. Gammie, Roberto García, Olivier Gentaz, Boris Georgiev,Ciriaco Goddi,Roman Gold, Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz,José L. Gómez,Minfeng Gu,Mark Gurwell,Kazuhiro Hada,Daryl Haggard,Kari Haworth,Michael H. Hecht,Ronald Hesper,Dirk Heumann,Luis C. Ho, Paul Ho,Mareki Honma,Chih-Wei L. Huang,Lei Huang,David H. Hughes,Shiro Ikeda, C. M. Violette Impellizzeri, Makoto Inoue, Sara Issaoun, David J. James, Buell T. Jannuzi, Michael Janssen, Britton Jeter, Wu Jiang, Alejandra Jiménez-Rosales, Michael D. Johnson, Svetlana Jorstad, Abhishek V. Joshi, Taehyun Jung, Mansour Karami, Ramesh Karuppusamy, Tomohisa Kawashima, Garrett K. Keating, Mark Kettenis, Dong-Jin Kim, Jae-Young Kim, Jongsoo Kim, Junhan Kim, Motoki Kino, Jun Yi Koay, Prashant Kocherlakota, Yutaro Kofuji, Patrick M. Koch, Shoko Koyama, Carsten Kramer, Joana A. Kramer, Michael Kramer, Thomas P. Krichbaum, Cheng-Yu Kuo, Noemi La Bella, Tod R. Lauer, Daeyoung Lee, Sang-Sung Lee, Po Kin Leung, Aviad Levis, Zhiyuan Li, Rocco Lico, Greg Lindahl, Michael Lindqvist, Mikhail Lisakov, Jun Liu, Kuo Liu, Elisabetta Liuzzo, Wen-Ping Lo, Andrei P. Lobanov, Laurent Loinard, Colin J. Lonsdale, Amy E. Lowitz, Ru-Sen Lu, Nicholas R. MacDonald, Jirong Mao, Nicola Marchili, Sera Markoff, Daniel P. Marrone, Alan P. Marscher, Iván Martí-Vidal, Satoki Matsushita, Lynn D. Matthews, Lia Medeiros, Karl M. Menten, Daniel Michalik, Izumi Mizuno, Yosuke Mizuno, James M. Moran, Kotaro Moriyama, Monika Moscibrodzka, Wanga Mulaudzi, Cornelia Müller, Hendrik Müller, Alejandro Mus, Gibwa Musoke, Ioannis Myserlis, Andrew Nadolski, Hiroshi Nagai, Neil M. Nagar, Masanori Nakamura, Gopal Narayanan, Iniyan Natarajan, Antonios Nathanail, Santiago Navarro Fuentes, Joey Neilsen, Roberto Neri, Chunchong Ni, Aristeidis Noutsos, Michael A. Nowak, Junghwan Oh, Hiroki Okino, Hèctor Olivares, Gisela N. Ortiz-León, Tomoaki Oyama, Feryal Özel, Daniel C. M. Palumbo, Georgios Filippos Paraschos, Jongho Park, Harriet Parsons, Nimesh Patel, Ue-Li Pen, Dominic W. Pesce, Vincent Piétu, Richard Plambeck, Aleksandar PopStefanija, Oliver Porth, Felix M. Pötzl, Ben Prather, Jorge A. Preciado-López, Dimitrios Psaltis, Hung-Yi Pu, Venkatessh Ramakrishnan, Ramprasad Rao,Mark G. Rawlings, Alexander W. Raymond, Luciano Rezzolla, Angelo Ricarte, Bart Ripperda, Freek Roelofs, Alan Rogers, Cristina Romero-Cañizales, Eduardo Ros, Arash Roshanineshat, Helge Rottmann, Alan L. Roy, Ignacio Ruiz, Chet Ruszczyk, Kazi L. J. Rygl, Salvador Sánchez, David Sánchez-Argüelles, Miguel Sánchez-Portal, Mahito Sasada, Kaushik Satapathy, Tuomas Savolainen, F. Peter Schloerb, Jonathan Schonfeld, Karl-Friedrich Schuster, Lijing Shao, Zhiqiang Shen, Des Small, Bong Won Sohn, Jason SooHoo, León David Sosapanta Salas, Kamal Souccar, Joshua S. Stanway, He Sun, Fumie Tazaki, Alexandra J. Tetarenko, Paul Tiede, Remo P. J. Tilanus, Michael Titus, Pablo Torne, Teresa Toscano, Efthalia Traianou, Tyler Trent, Sascha Trippe, Matthew Turk, Ilse van Bemmel, Huib Jan van Langevelde, Daniel R. van Rossum, Jesse Vos, Jan Wagner, Derek Ward-Thompson, John Wardle, Jasmin E. Washington, Jonathan Weintroub, Robert Wharton, Maciek Wielgus, Kaj Wiik, Gunther Witzel, Michael F. Wondrak, George N. Wong, Qingwen Wu, Nitika Yadlapalli, Paul Yamaguchi, Aristomenis Yfantis, Doosoo Yoon, Andrè Young, Ken Young, Ziri Younsi, Wei Yu, Feng Yuan, Ye-Fei Yuan, J. Anton Zensus, Shuo Zhang, Guang-Yao Zhao, Shan-Shan Zhao

The Astrophysical Journal Letters(2024)

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摘要
The Event Horizon Telescope observed the horizon-scale synchrotron emission region around the Galactic center supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), in 2017. These observations revealed a bright, thick ring morphology with a diameter of 51.8 ± 2.3 μ as and modest azimuthal brightness asymmetry, consistent with the expected appearance of a black hole with mass M ≈ 4 × 10 ^6 M _⊙ . From these observations, we present the first resolved linear and circular polarimetric images of Sgr A*. The linear polarization images demonstrate that the emission ring is highly polarized, exhibiting a prominent spiral electric vector polarization angle pattern with a peak fractional polarization of ∼40% in the western portion of the ring. The circular polarization images feature a modestly (∼5%–10%) polarized dipole structure along the emission ring, with negative circular polarization in the western region and positive circular polarization in the eastern region, although our methods exhibit stronger disagreement than for linear polarization. We analyze the data using multiple independent imaging and modeling methods, each of which is validated using a standardized suite of synthetic data sets. While the detailed spatial distribution of the linear polarization along the ring remains uncertain owing to the intrinsic variability of the source, the spiraling polarization structure is robust to methodological choices. The degree and orientation of the linear polarization provide stringent constraints for the black hole and its surrounding magnetic fields, which we discuss in an accompanying publication.
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Black holes,Supermassive black holes,Polarimetry,Radio interferometry,Very long baseline interferometry,Galactic center
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