Haploidentical transplantation in primary refractory/relapsed secondary versus de novo AML: from the ALWP/EBMT

Blood Advances(2024)

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Abstract
We compared the outcomes of haploidentical stem cell transplantation (HaploHSCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in 719 patients (pts) with primary refractory (PR) / first relapse (Rel) secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) (n=129) versus those of de novo AML (n=590), transplanted between 2010 and 2022. A higher percentage of pts with sAML versus de novo AML had PR disease (73.6% vs. 58.6%) (p=0.002). In 81.4% of sAML pts, the antecedent hematological disorder was myelodysplastic syndrome. Engraftment was 83.5% vs. 88.4% in sAML and de novo AML, respectively (p=0.13). In multivariate analysis HaploHSCT outcomes did not differ significantly between the groups; non-relapse mortality (NRM) hazard ratio (HR) =1.38 (95% CI 0.96-1.98, p=0.083), relapse incidence (RI) HR= 0.68 (95% CI 0.4.7.-1.00, p=0.051). The HRs for leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS), and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 0.99 (95% CI 0.76-1.28, p=0.94), 0.99 (95% CI 0.77-1.29, p=0.97) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.77-1.27, p=0.94), respectively. We conclude that outcomes of HaploHSCT with PTCy are not different for PR/Rel sAML in comparison to PR/Rel de novo AML, a finding of major clinical importance.
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Key words
haploidentical allogeneic stem cell transplantation,post-transplantation cyclophosphamide,secondary acute myeloid leukemia,de novo acute myeloid leukemia,primary refractory/relapsed
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