Personalized treatment approaches in intraocular cancer

Advances in Ophthalmology Practice and Research(2024)

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Abstract
Background Intraocular malignant tumors represent a severe disease that threatens vision as well as life. To better extend the life of the patient, preserve visual function, and maintain ocular aesthetics, selecting the appropriate timing and methods of treatment becomes crucial. Main text With the continuous advancement of medical technology, the techniques and methods for treating intraocular malignant tumors are constantly evolving. While surgery was once considered the optimal method to prolong patient survival and prevent local recurrence, the discovery and application of various treatments such as radiotherapy, laser therapy, chemotherapy, cryotherapy, and monoclonal antibodies have led to a greater diversity of treatment options. This diversity offers more possibilities to develop personalized treatment plans, and thereby maximize patient benefit. This article reviews the various treatment methods for intraocular malignant tumors, including indications for treatment, outcomes, and potential complications. Conclusions Differentiating small intraocular malignant tumors from pigmented lesions is challenging, and ongoing monitoring with regular follow-up is required. Small to medium-sized tumors can be treated with radiotherapy combined with transpupillary thermotherapy. Depending on the tumor's distance from the optic disc, surgery with partial resection may be considered for distant tumors, while proximal tumors may require complete enucleation. Systemic chemotherapy has been widely applied to patients with retinal tumors, lymphomas, and intraocular metastatic cancers, but has limited efficacy in patients with choroidal melanoma. Antagonists of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (Anti-VEGF) drugs can improve patient vision and quality of life, while the efficacy of immunotherapy and molecular targeted therapy is still under research.
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Key words
Intraocular cancer,Uveal melanoma,Retinoblastoma,Treatment
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