Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison of Brexucabtagene Autoleucel (ZUMA-2) and Pirtobrutinib (BRUIN) in Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma Previously Treated with a Covalent Bruton Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor


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IntroductionPatients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) often require multiple lines of treatment and have a poor prognosis, particularly after failing covalent Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (cBTKi) therapy. Newer treatments such as brexucabtagene autoleucel (brexu-cel, chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy) and pirtobrutinib (non-covalent BTKi) show promise in improving outcomes.MethodsWithout direct comparative evidence, an unanchored matching-adjusted indirect comparison was conducted to estimate the relative treatment effects of brexu-cel and pirtobrutinib for post-cBTKi R/R MCL. Using logistic propensity score models, individual patient-level data from ZUMA-2 brexu-cel-infused population (N = 68) were weighted to match pre-specified clinically relevant prognostic factors based on study-level data from the BRUIN cBTKi pre-treated cohort (N = 90). The base-case model incorporated the five most pertinent factors reported in >= 50% of both trial populations: morphology, MCL International Prognostic Index, number of prior lines of therapy, disease stage, and prior autologous stem cell transplant. A sensitivity analysis additionally incorporated TP53 mutation and Ki-67 proliferation. Relative treatment effects were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).ResultsIn the base-case model, brexu-cel was associated with higher rates of objective response (OR 10.39 [95% CI 2.81-38.46]) and complete response (OR 10.11 [95% CI 4.26-24.00]), and improved progression-free survival (HR 0.44 [95% CI 0.25-0.75]), compared to pirtobrutinib. Overall survival and duration of response favored brexu-cel over pirtobrutinib but the differences crossed the bounds for statistical significance. Findings were consistent across the adjusted and unadjusted analyses.ConclusionsFindings suggest that brexu-cel may offer clinically and statistically significant benefits regarding objective response, complete response, and progression-free survival compared to pirtobrutinib among patients with R/R MCL after prior cBTKi therapy. Given the short follow-up and high degree of censoring in BRUIN, an analysis incorporating updated BRUIN data may provide more definitive overall survival results.
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Key words
Brexucabtagene autoleucel,Brexu-cel,Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor,CAR T cell therapy,KTE-X19,MAIC,Matching-adjusted indirect comparison,Mantle cell lymphoma,Non-Hodgkin lymphoma,Pirtobrutinib
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