LMChain: An Efficient Load-Migratable Beacon-based Sharding Blockchain System

Dengcheng Hu,Jianrong Wang,Xiulong Liu, Qi Li,Keqiu Li

IEEE Transactions on Computers(2024)

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Abstract
Sharding is an important technology that utilizes group parallelism to enhance the scalability and performance of blockchain. However, the existing solutions use a historical transaction-based approach to reallocate shards, which cannot handle temporary overload and incurs additional overhead during the reallocation process. To this end, this paper proposes LMChain, an efficient load-migratable beacon-based sharding blockchain system. The primary goal of LMChain is to eliminate reliance on historical transactions and achieve the high performance. Specifically, we redesign the state maintenance data structure in Beacon Shard to effectively manage all account states at the shard level. Then, we innovatively propose a load-migratable transaction processing protocol built upon the new data structure. To mitigate read-write conflicts during the selection of migration transactions, we adopt a novel graph partitioning scheme. We also adopt a relay-based method to handle cross-shard transactions and resolve inter-shard state read-write conflicts. We implement the LMChain prototype and conducted experiments in a real network environment comprising 17 cloud servers. Experimental results show that, compared with state-of-the-art solutions, LMChain effectively reduces the average transaction wait latency of overloaded transactions by 30% to 48% in different cases within 16 transaction shards, while improving throughput by 3% to 10%.
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Key words
Blockchain Sharding,Load Migration,Graph Partitioning
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