Donor/recipient Rh-mismatched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: transfusion strategy and allo-immunization to red blood cell antigens.

Aliénor Xhaard,Aline Floch, Mathilde Ruggiu, Marie Robin,Flore Sicre de Fontbrune,David Michonneau,Eleonore Kaphan, Pedro Henrique de Lima Prata, Gérard Socié,Richard Traineau, Régis Peffault de Latour,Anne-Claire Leprêtre

Bone marrow transplantation(2024)

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Abstract
In the case of donor/recipient rhesus (Rh)-incompatibility after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), the transfusion policy in France is to transfuse red blood cells (RBC) in the donor's Rh phenotype from the day of transplantation, leading to a risk of allo-immunization, either of donor or recipient origin. In this single-center retrospective study, the incidence of donor/recipient Rh incompatibility was 7.1% over an 8-year period including 1012 alloHSCT. Six of 58 evaluable patients (10.3%) developed alloantibodies to RBC antigens within one year of alloHSCT. None of these allo-immunizations were directed against the donor-mismatched Rh antigens and none could have been prevented by the transfusion of recipient and donor Rh-compatible RBC units. None of these allo-immunizations led to immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. We observed a statistically significant higher incidence of chronic GVHD among patients with anti-RBC allo-immunization. In the context of donor/recipient Rh incompatibility, the transfusion of packed RBC units in the donor's Rh phenotype from the day of alloHSCT is feasible and not associated with a high risk of allo-immunization. The generalization of this strategy could be discussed even when donor and recipient Rh phenotypes could be respected, to allow the preservation of units of infrequent phenotypes for other indications.
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