Prognostic factors impacting post-transplant outcomes in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a registry-based study by the EBMT acute leukemia working party.

Bone marrow transplantation(2024)

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T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) predominantly affects individuals in late childhood and young adulthood. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a curative modality particularly in the setting of poor risk genetics and/or persistent minimal residual disease. Limited studies have directly explored the impact of patient- and transplant-related factors on post-transplant outcomes in T-ALL. Using a large dataset from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry, we identified 1907 adult T-ALL patients (70% male) who underwent their first allo-HSCT in first complete remission (CR1) from matched sibling donors (MSD; 45%), unrelated donors (UD; 43%) or haploidentical donors (12%) between 2010 and 2021. The median age at transplant was 33.4 years (18.1-75). The median follow up was 2.9 years. Most patients underwent total body irradiation (TBI)-based myeloablative conditioning (69%). The 2-year overall survival (OS) was 69.4%, and leukemia -free survival (LFS) was 62.1%. In multivariate analysis, advanced age at transplant negatively affected LFS (for each 10-year increment, HR = 1.11, p = 0.004), GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) (HR = 1.06, p = 0.04), OS (HR = 1.12, p = 0.002), and non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR = 1.23, p < 0.001). More recent years of allo-HSCT were associated with improved GFRS (For each 3-year increment, HR = 0.89, p < 0.001), OS (HR = 0.9, p = 0.02), and decreased NRM (HR = 0.82, p = 0.008). TBI improved LFS. (HR = 0.79, p = 0.02), GRFS (HR = 0.83, p = 0.04), and relapse incidence (RI) (HR = 0.65, p < 0.001). Female-to-male transplant negatively affected GRFS (HR = 1.21, p = 0.02) and OS (HR = 1.23, p = 0.048). In vivo T-cell depletion significantly improved GFRS (HR = 0.74, p < 0.001). This large study identified prognostic factors, such as age at transplant conditioning regimen, in influencing post-transplant in adult T-ALL patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Importantly, a significant improvement over time was noted. These findings hold great promise for new adapted treatment strategies and can serve as a benchmark for future studies in that setting.
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