Analytical Modeling and Characterization of Electromigration Effects for Multibranch Interconnect Trees.

IEEE Trans. on CAD of Integrated Circuits and Systems(2016)

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Electromigration (EM) in very large scale integration (VLSI) interconnects has become one of the major reliability issues for current and future VLSI technologies. However, existing EM modeling and analysis techniques are mainly developed for a single wire. For practical VLSI chips, the elemental EM reliability unit called interconnect tree is a multibranch interconnect segment consisting of a continuously connected, highly conductive metal (Cu) lines terminated by diffusion barriers and located within the single level of metallization. The EM effects in those branches are not independent and have to be considered simultaneously. In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time, a first principle-based analytical solution of this problem. We have derived the analytical expressions describing the hydrostatic stress evolution in several typical interconnect trees: 1) the straight-line three-terminal wires; 2) the T-shaped four-terminal wires; and 3) the cross-shaped five-terminal wires. The new approach solves the stress evolution in a multibranch tree by de-coupling the individual segments through the proper boundary conditions (BCs) accounting the interactions between different branches. By using Laplace transformation technique, analytical solutions are obtained for each type of the interconnect trees. The analytical solutions in terms of a set of auxiliary basis functions using the complementary error function agree well with the numerical analysis results. Our analysis further demonstrates that using the first two dominant basis functions can lead to 0.5% error, which is sufficient for practical EM analysis.
Stress,Wires,Integrated circuit interconnections,Analytical models,Mathematical model,Metals,Current density
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