Application value of echocardiography in transthoracic punctural closure of postoperative residual ventricular septal defect of congenital heart disease.

Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences(2021)

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OBJECTIVES:Residual ventricular septal defect (VSD) after congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the major postoperative complications in cardiac surgery. At present, the commonly used clinical treatment methods for this complication are reoperation to redo surgical repair with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and percutaneous transcatheter device closure, but these 2 methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. Transthoracic punctural closure of residual VSD is a feasible, safe, and novel technique for patients with residual VSD, which avoids not only the risk of difficulties in reoperation under another CPB due to thoracic adhesion, but also the risk of radiation exposure. Moreover, the operation is easier to handle due to short and direct operation path. This study aims to explore the role and value of echocardiography in transthoracic punctural closure of postoperative residual VSD of CHD. METHODS:A total of 25 patients, who were admitted in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University and accepted transthoracic punctural closure of postoperative residual VSD, were collected. The morphology of the residual VSD and the distance from tricuspid valve and aortic valve were assessed by trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) preoperatively, and the location of the punctural point and the direction of puncture were determined. The establishment of delivery track and releasing of occluder device were accurately guided by TEE intraoperatively. The position and morphology of the occluder device, residual shunt, aortic regurgitaion, and outflow obstruction were required close attention in immediately postoperative evaluation. If any dislocation or residual shunt was found, adjustments were needed immediately. Follow-ups were performed at 3-5 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after operation. Occluder location, residual shunt, valvular function, and other complications were observed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to assess the effect of the closure by occluder. Ventricular size and cardiac function were determined to evaluate the state of ventricular remodeling. In addition, cardiac rhythm was monitored by ECG periodically. RESULTS:Of the 25 patients underwent transthoracic punctural closure of postoperative residual VSD, except 1 double outlet right ventricle (DORV) and 1 tetralogy of fallot (TOF) postoperative patients failured and immediately received a thoracotomy surgery with CPB due to excessive size of residual defect and the irregular morphology, the rest 23 patients were successfully closed by the occluders (92.0%). Among the 23 occluders (diameters range from 5 mm to 10 mm), membrane symmetrical VSD occluders were applied to 17 cases, small-waist-large-edge VSD occluder was applied to 1 case, and eccentric VSD occluders were applied to 5 cases. TEE, applied immediately after occlusion, showed the satisfactory position and the shaping of the occluders. There were no residual shunts, no cardiac tamponade, no thrombosis and outflow obstruction. Two patients had small amounts of pericardial effusion. No newly emerging valve reflux was observed. After 3-48 months of observation, there was no device displacement, newly emerging valve reflux, and residual shunt. One case had incomplete right bundle branch block. CONCLUSIONS:Guided by TEE, transthoracic punctural closure of postoperative residual ventricular septal defect of CHD is safe and effective. This procedure has broadened the indications for the minimally invasive treatment of CHD and improved the technical system of the minimally invasive treatment of CHD. TEE which can provide accurate diagnosis and guide the whole process plays a decisive role in this operation technique.
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