Modified tuber starches as potential stabilizer for food-grade Pickering emulsions

Journal of Food Science(2020)

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The application of modified tuber starches in particle-stabilized emulsions was studied to obtain surfactant-free emulsions, called Pickering emulsions. Three different starches, namely, potato (P), sweet potato (S) and tapioca (T) starches were modified using dry-heat treatment (HD, 120°C, 150 mins), hydrothermal treatment (HM, 50°C, 30 mins), OSAmodification (OSA, 2.9%) and hydroxypropylation (HP, 2 mL of 20% propylene oxide) before being used as stabilizer for stabilizing emulsion. The physicochemical properties of the starches and the characteristics of the stabilized emulsion were studied. Potato OSAtreated starch (POSA) had significantly higher degree of substitution (DS) (DS = 0.0154) than SOSA (DS = 0.0081) and TOSA (DS = 0.0083). For the starches undergone treatment of hydroxypropylation, SHP had the highest molar substitution (MS) value of 0.20, followed by PHP (0.11) and THP (0.10). The amylose content of starches reduced significantly after all modifications (HD, HM, OSA, and HP). All OSA-treated starch (POSA, SOSA, and TOSA) had higher fat binding capacity compared to their native and starches that modified using different treatments (HD, HM, and HP). Based on the emulsification index values and optical microscopic images, all starch particles were able to stabilize emulsions except for SC, SHM, TC, and THM. Optical microscopic images showed that the starch particles accumulated and formed a densely packed layer at the oilwater interface. At the starch concentration of 400 mg/mL oil, emulsion stabilized by dryheated potato starch and all hydroxypropylated-starch-stabilized emulsions had a high emulsification index value of 1. Significantly highest viscosity was noticed from the emulsion stabilized by POSA. Overall, by comparing the physico-chemical properties of the modified starches and the characteristics of emulsions stabilized, potato OSA-treated starch (POSA) had the best emulsifying ability.
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