Specific nanoscale synaptic reshuffling and control of short-term plasticity following NMDAR- and P2XR-dependent Long-Term Depression


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Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) and Long-Term Depression (LTD) of excitatory synaptic transmission are considered as cellular basis of learning and memory. These two forms of synaptic plasticity have been mainly attributed to global changes in the number of synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) through a regulation of the diffusion/trapping balance at the PSD, exocytosis and endocytosis. While the precise molecular mechanisms at the base of LTP have been intensively investigated, the ones involved in LTD remains elusive. Here we combined super-resolution imaging technique, electrophysiology and modeling to describe the various modifications of AMPAR nanoscale organization and their effect on synaptic transmission in response to two different LTD protocols, based on the activation of either NMDA receptors or P2X receptors. While both type of LTD are associated with a decrease in synaptic AMPAR clustering, only NMDAR-dependent LTD is associated with a reorganization of PSD-95 at the nanoscale. This change increases the pool of diffusive AMPAR improving synaptic short-term facilitation through a post-synaptic mechanism. These results demonstrate that specific dynamic reorganization of synapses at the nanoscale during specific LTD paradigm allows to improve the responsiveness of depressed synapses.
AMPA receptors,synaptic transmission,long-term depression,neuronal responsiveness,super-resolution imaging,electrophysiology
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