Outer Foveal Microdefects

Ophthalmology Retina(2021)

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Purpose: To report a spectral-domain (SD) OCT clinical sign, outer foveal microdefect (OFMD), corresponding to a focal disruption of the foveal photoreceptors in association with various macular conditions.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Participants: Forty-five patients with OFMD.Methods: All patients were imaged with color photography and SD OCT, and some were imaged with autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, or a combination thereof. Patient demographics, OFMD imaging, courses, and outcomes were analyzed retrospectively.Main Outcome Measures: Demographics, conditions associated with OFMD, and diameter of OFMD.Results: Fifty-one eyes of 45 patients (15 men and 30 women; age range, 10-88 years) were included. Symptoms included central scotoma, metamorphopsia, and mild to moderate visual loss. Outer foveal microdefects were observed in association with various macular conditions: presumed posterior vitreous detachment, vitreomacular interface changes, or both (24 eyes); sequelae of macular edema (3 eyes); blunt trauma (2 eyes); retinal phototoxicity resulting from laser or solar maculopathy (5 eyes); and macular telangiectasia type 2 (2 eyes). An improvement with a reduction in OFMD diameter was documented in 9 of 14 eyes that could be followed up.Conclusions: We suggest renaming the condition outer foveal microdefect instead of macular microhole, which is usually associated with a vitreomacular disorder. The pattern indeed also was observed in traumatic or degenerative conditions. We assumed that various injuries led to changes in foveal morphologic features and that a full recovery of the foveal architecture could be altered, especially in eyes with findings suggestive of the pachychoroid spectrum of disorders. (C) 2020 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology
Macular microhole,OCT,Outer foveal microdefect,Pachychoroid,Posterior vitreous detachment
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