Occurrence Of Agricultural Pesticides In Mississippi Delta Bayou Sediments And Their Effects On The Amphipod: Hyalella Azteca

CHEMISTRY AND ECOLOGY(2021)

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摘要
Agricultural activity enhances topsoil erosion and facilitates the transport of pesticides that alter watershed sediment quality. Agricultural stream (bayou) sediment quality in Mississippi, USA, was evaluated across three bayous, habitats (upstream, midstream, downstream), and seasonally from 2011 to 2014 for pesticide contamination, effects, and bioavailability to Hyalella azteca. Four-week (28-day) H. azteca sediment bioassays were conducted to assess survival and growth and tissue residues. Fourteen pesticides were detected in at least one sediment sample and nine pesticides were detected in H. azteca tissues. Sediment pesticides p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were greatest in Cow Oak Bayou and heptachlor and bifenthrin were greatest in Howden Lake Bayou. Seasonally, lambda-cyhalothrin and p,p'-DDT were greatest in winter while trifluralin, atrazine, and clomazone were greatest in the fall. H. azteca survival and growth ranged from 0 to 100% and 0.8-4.1 mg, respectively, with Cow Oak, downstream habitats, and spring samples having the greatest survival and growth. Greatest tissue pesticide residues were atrazine (1271 mu g/kg), p,p'-DDT (1,093 mu g/kg), and beta-cyfluthrin (1003 mu g/kg). Tissue pesticide residues were influenced primarily by p,p'-DDT with Cow Oak and fall tissue samples having the lowest residues. H. azteca tissue p,p'-DDT residues contributed to biological impairment. Although banned in the USA for 40 years, p,p'-DDT continues to impact sediment quality.
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关键词
Invertebrate, herbicides, insecticides, tissue residues, row crop agriculture
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