The Mechanisms Of The Anti-Inflammatory And Anti-Apoptotic Effects Of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids During Methotrexate-Induced Intestinal Damage In Cell Line And In A Rat Model


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Background: The aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic patterns of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) during methotrexate (MTX) induced intestinal damage in cell culture and in a rat model. Methods: Non-treated and treated with MTX HT 29 and HCT116cells were exposed to increasing doses of n-3 PUFAs and cell viability was evaluated using PrestoBlue(R) assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: Control rats, CONTR+n-3 PUFA rats that were treated with oral n-3 PUFA, MTX rats were treated with MTX given IP, and MTX+n-3 PUFA rats were treated with oral n-3 PUFA before and following injection of MTX. Intestinal mucosal parameters and mucosal inflammation, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis, TNF-alpha in mucosal tissue and plasma (ELISA), NF-kappa B, COX-2, TNF-alpha, Fas, FasL, Fadd, Bid, Bax and Bcl-2gene and protein levels were determined 72 h following MTX injection. Results: Exposure of HT 29 and HCT116cells to n-3 PUFA attenuated inhibiting effects of MTX on cell viability. MTX-n-3 PUFA rats demonstrated a lower intestinal injury score and enhanced intestinal repair. A significant decrease in enterocyte apoptosis in MTX+n-3 PUFA rats was accompanied by decreased TNF-alpha, FAS, FasL, FADD and BID mRNA levels. Decreased NF-kappa B, COX-2 and TNF-alpha levels in mucosa was accompanied by a decreased number of IELs and macrophages. Conclusions: n-3 PUFAs inhibit NF-kappa B/COX-2 induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit cell apoptosis mainly by extrinsic pathway in rats with MTX-induced intestinal damage.
chemotherapy, intestine, mucositis, TNF-&#945, NF-&#954, B, COX-2, apoptosis
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