Molecular characterization and ecotoxicological evaluation of the natural dye madder and its chlorinated products

Environmental Science and Pollution Research(2021)

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There has been increased interest in the use of natural dyes for textile coloration as alternatives to synthetic dyes, due to the general belief that natural dyes are more environmentally friendly. However, natural dyes have poor affinity for textiles, which can lead to high dye levels in the resultant wastewater. While chlorine treatment has proven to be effective for dye wastewater disinfection and decolorization, this process can also lead to the formation of more toxic degradation products for certain synthetic dyes. On the other hand, little information is available regarding the ecotoxicity of natural dyes and their chlorination products. To advance knowledge in this area, madder was selected due to its historical importance and wide application in the textile industry. Specifically, we sought to characterize the chlorine-induced degradation products of an aqueous madder solution and to assess their ecotoxicity. The main component of the present madder sample was Alizarin (89.8%). Chlorination led to complete decolorization, and 2-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione and phthalic anhydride were identified as key degradation products. Chlorination of madder decreased toxicity to Daphnia similis (microcrustacean) 10-fold and removed the toxicity to Raphidocellis subcapitata (algae), when compared to the parent dye.
Natural dye,Madder,Decolorization,Chlorination products,Mass spectrometry,Ecotoxicity,Daphnia similis,Raphidocellis subcapitata
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