Less is More: Generating Grounded Navigation Instructions from Landmarks

IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition(2022)

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We study the automatic generation of navigation instructions from 360° images captured on indoor routes. Existing generators suffer from poor visual grounding, causing them to rely on language priors and hallucinate objects. Our Marky-mt5 system addresses this by focusing on visual landmarks; it comprises a first stage landmark detector and a second stage generator-a multimodal, multilingual, multi-task encoder-decoder. To train it, we bootstrap grounded landmark annotations on top of the Room-across-Room (RxR) dataset. Using text parsers, weak supervision from RxR's pose traces, and a multilingual image-text encoder trained on 1.8b images, we identify 971k English, Hindi and Telugu landmark descriptions and ground them to specific regions in panoramas. On Room-to-Room, human wayfind-ers obtain success rates (SR) of 71% following Marky-mt5's instructions, just shy of their 75% SR following human instructions-and well above SRs with other genera-tors. Evaluations on RxR's longer, diverse paths obtain 61-64% SRs on three languages. Generating such high-quality navigation instructions in novel environments is a step to-wards conversational navigation tools and could facilitate larger-scale training of instruction-following agents.
Vision + language
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