Effects of High Ambient Temperature on Electric Vehicle Efficiency and Range: Case Study of Kuwait


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The use of electric vehicles (EVs) provides a pathway to sustainable transport, reducing emissions and contributing to net-zero carbon aspirations. However, consumer acceptance has been limited by travel range anxiety and a lack of knowledge about EV technology and its infrastructure. This is especially the case in hot and oil-rich areas such as Kuwait, where transport is predominantly fossil fuel-driven. Studying the effects of high ambient temperature on EV efficiency and range is essential to improve EV performance, increase the user base and promote early adoption to secure more environmental benefits. The ability to determine the energy consumption of electric vehicles (EVs) is not only vital to reduce travel range anxiety but also forms an important foundation for the spatial siting, operation and management of EV charging points in cities and towns. This research presents an analysis of data gathered from more than 3000 journeys of an EV in Kuwait representing typical vehicle usage. The average energy intensity and consumption of the car/kilometre travelled were calculated for each journey, along with ambient temperature measured by the vehicle. The analysis indicates that energy intensity reaches a minimum at a starting temperature between 22 degrees C and 23 degrees C. Energy intensity rises with decreasing temperature below this point and with increasing temperature above this point. The results show that many vehicle journeys started with high temperatures, with about half of journeys starting at 30 degrees C or above and approximately a quarter at 40 degrees C or above. Fitting a model to the empirical data for trip starting temperature and energy intensity, average efficiency is impacted at high car temperatures, with energy intensity modelled at 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C to be higher by 6% and 22%, respectively. These findings have implications for vehicle range, EV charging infrastructure and car storage and parking provision.
EV electric consumption, ambient temperature, EV auxiliary loads, energy efficiency, social interaction effects
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