Identification of Smoke from Straw Burning in Remote Sensing Images with the Improved YOLOv5s Algorithm


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Controlling straw burning is important for ensuring the ambient air quality and for sustainable agriculture. Detecting burning straw is vital for managing and controlling straw burning. Existing methods for detecting straw combustion mainly look for combustion products, especially smoke. In this study, the improved You Only Look Once version 5 (YOLOv5s) algorithm was used to detect smoke in Sentinel-2 images captured by remote sensing. Although the original YOLOv5s model had a faster detection speed, its detection accuracy was poor. Thus, a convolutional block attention module was added to the original model. In addition, in order to speed up the convergence of the model, this study replaced the leaky Rectified Linear Unit (leaky ReLU) activation function with the Mish activation function. The accuracy of the improved model was approximately 4% higher for the same detection speed. The improved YOLOv5s had a higher detection accuracy and speed compared to common target detection algorithms, such as RetinaNet, mask Region-Based Convolutional Neural Network (R-CNN), Single-Shot Multibox Detector (SSD), and faster R-CNN. The improved YOLOv5s analyzed an image in 2 ms. In addition, mAP(50) exceeded 94%, demonstrating that with this study's improved method, smoke can be quickly and accurately identified. This work may serve as a reference for improving smoke detection, and for the effective management and control of straw burning.
YOLOv5s, smoke detection, Sentinel-2 remote sensing image, CBAM, activation function
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