Adversarial Camouflage for Node Injection Attack on Graphs


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Node injection attacks against Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have received emerging attention as a practical attack scenario, where the attacker injects malicious nodes instead of modifying node features or edges to degrade the performance of GNNs. Despite the initial success of node injection attacks, we find that the injected nodes by existing methods are easy to be distinguished from the original normal nodes by defense methods and limiting their attack performance in practice. To solve the above issues, we devote to camouflage node injection attack, i.e., camouflaging injected malicious nodes (structure/attributes) as the normal ones that appear legitimate/imperceptible to defense methods. The non-Euclidean nature of graph data and the lack of human prior brings great challenges to the formalization, implementation, and evaluation of camouflage on graphs. In this paper, we first propose and formulate the camouflage of injected nodes from both the fidelity and diversity of the ego networks centered around injected nodes. Then, we design an adversarial CAmouflage framework for Node injection Attack, namely CANA, to improve the camouflage while ensuring the attack performance. Several novel indicators for graph camouflage are further designed for a comprehensive evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that when equipping existing node injection attack methods with our proposed CANA framework, the attack performance against defense methods as well as node camouflage is significantly improved.
Adversarial camouflage, Node injection attack, Adversarial attack, Graph neural networks
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