Challenges in hyperglycemia management in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

World journal of critical care medicine(2022)

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Abstract
Hyperglycemia is commonly associated with adverse outcomes especially in patients requiring intensive care unit stay. Data from the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic indicates that individuals with diabetes appear to be at similar risk for COVID-19 infection to those without diabetes but are more likely to experience increased morbidity and mortality. The proposed hypothesis for hyperglycemia in COVID-19 include insulin resistance, critical illness hyperglycemia (stress- induced hyperglycemia) secondary to high levels of hormones like cortisol and catecholamines that counteract insulin action, acute cytokine storm and pancreatic cell dysfunction. Diabetic patients are more likely to have severe hyperglycemic complications including diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Management of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 is often complicated by use of steroids, prolonged total parenteral or enteral nutrition, frequent acute hyperglycemic events, and restrictions with fluid management due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. While managing hyperglycemia special attention should be paid to mode of insulin delivery, frequency of glucose monitoring based on patient and caregiver safety thereby minimizing exposure and conserving personal protective equipment. In this article we describe the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia, challenges encountered in managing hyperglycemia, and review some potential solutions to address them.
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Key words
COVID-19,Critical care,Diabetes,Diabetic ketoacidosis,Hyperglycemia
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