Dissociation of SH3 and cysteine-rich domain 3 and junctophilin 1 from dihydropyridine receptor in dystrophin-deficient muscles.

American journal of physiology. Cell physiology(2022)

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The disruption of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and subsequent reduction in Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) have been shown to account for muscle weakness seen in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying EC uncoupling in skeletal muscles from mdx52 and DMD-null/NSG mice, animal models for DMD, focusing on the SH3 and cysteine-rich domain 3 (STAC3) and junctophilin 1 (JP1), which link the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) in the transverse tubule and the ryanodine receptor 1 in the SR. The isometric plantarflexion torque normalized to muscle weight of whole plantar flexor muscles was depressed in mdx52 and DMD-null/NSG mice compared with their control mice. This was accompanied by increased autolysis of calpain-1, decreased levels of STAC3 and JP1 content, and dissociation of STAC3 and JP1 from DHPR-α in gastrocnemius muscles. Moreover, in vitro mechanistic experiments demonstrated that STAC3 and JP1 underwent Ca-dependent proteolysis that was less pronounced in dystrophin-deficient muscles where calpastatin, the endogenous calpain inhibitor, was upregulated. Eccentric contractions further enhanced autolysis of calpain-1 and proteolysis of STAC3 and JP1 that were associated with severe torque depression in gastrocnemius muscles from DMD-null/NSG mice. These data suggest that Ca-dependent proteolysis of STAC3 and JP1 may be an essential factor causing muscle weakness due to EC coupling failure in dystrophin-deficient muscles. The mechanisms underlying the disruption of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in dystrophin-deficient muscles are not well understood. Here, using animal models for Duchenne muscular dystrophies (DMD), we show a Ca-dependent protease (calpain-1)-mediated proteolysis of SH3 and cysteine-rich domain 3 (STAC3) and junctophilin 1 (JP1), essential EC coupling proteins, in dystrophin-deficient muscle, and highlighting the dissociation of STAC3 and JP1 from dihydropyridine receptor as a causative factor in EC uncoupling of dystrophic muscles.
STAC3,calpain,eccentric contraction,junctophilin 1,muscular dystrophy
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