Open-Set Recognition: an Inexpensive Strategy to Increase DNN Reliability

2022 IEEE 28th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS)(2022)

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Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are nowadays widely used in low-cost accelerators, characterized by limited computational resources. These models, and in particular DNNs for image classification, are becoming increasingly popular in safety-critical applications, where they are required to be highly reliable. Unfortunately, increasing DNNs reliability without computational overheads, which might not be affordable in low-power devices, is a non-trivial task. Our intuition is to detect network executions affected by faults as outliers with respect to the distribution of normal network’s output. To this purpose, we propose to exploit Open-Set Recognition (OSR) techniques to perform Fault Detection in an extremely low-cost manner. In particuar, we analyze the Maximum Logit Score (MLS), which is an established Open-Set Recognition technique, and compare it against other well-known OSR methods, namely OpenMax, energy-based outof-distribution detection and ODIN. Our experiments, performed on a ResNet-20 classifier trained on CIFAR-10 and SVHN datasets, demonstrate that MLS guarantees satisfactory detection performance while adding a negligible computational overhead. Most remarkably, MLS is extremely convenient to conFigure and deploy, as it does not require any modification or re-training of the existing network. A discussion of the advantages and limitations of the analysed solutions concludes the paper.
Image Classification,Open-Set Recognition,Deep Neural Network,Reliability,Fault Detection
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