Rare-Earth Metal Complexes Supported by 1,3-Functionalized Indolyl-Based Ligands for Efficient Hydrosilylation of Alkenes

Inorganic chemistry(2023)

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Two different 1,3-functionalized indolyl-based proligands 1-(2-C4H7O)CH2-3-(2-tBuC6H5N=CH)C8H5N (HL1) and 1Me2NCH2CH2-3-(2-iPrC6H5N=CH)C8H5N (HL2) were designed, prepared in high yields, and successfully applied to rare-earth metal chemistry showing different reactivities and different bondings with the central metals. The reactions of HL1 with RE(CH2SiMe3)3(THF)2 provided two types of rare-earth metal complexes: the pincer type mononuclear complexes kappa 3-(L1)RE(CH2SiMe3)2 [L1 = 1-(2-C4H7O)-CH2-3-(2-tBuC6H5N=CH)C8H4N, RE = Lu(1), Yb(2)], and the dinuclear rare-earth metal alkyl (per alkyl/per metal) complexes having the ligand in novel coordination modes {(eta 1:(mu-eta 2:eta 1):eta 1-1-(2-C4H7O)-CH2-3-[2-tBuC6H5NCH-(CH2SiMe3)]C8H4N)RECH2SiMe3}2 [RE = Er(3), Y(4), Dy(5), and Gd(6)]. Meanwhile, the reactions of HL2 with RE(CH2SiMe3)3(THF)2 led to the isolation and characterization of only the mononuclear rare-earth metal dialkyl complexes kappa 3-(L2)RE(CH2SiMe3)2 [L2 = 1-Me2NCH2CH2-3-(2-iPrC6H5N=CH)C8H4N, RE = Lu(7), Gd(8)] bearing the ligand in the pincer chelate form. The mononuclear complexes were formed through the sp2 C-H activation of the 2-indolyl moiety, while the dinuclear complexes were produced unexpectedly through the tandem 2-indolyl sp2 C-H activation and C=N insertion into the RE- CH2SiMe3 bond. These complexes were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods, elemental analyses, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The applications of the synthesized complexes as catalysts for the hydrosilylation of terminal alkenes with phenylsilane are described. Anti-Markovnikov addition products were produced by the hydrosilylation of aliphatic olefins, and Markovnikov addition products were isolated with aromatic olefins with high selectivity in the absence of cocatalysts. It is found that the dinuclear rare-earth alkyl complexes exhibited the best catalytic activity with the advantages of mild reaction conditions, short reaction time, low catalyst loading, and wide substrate applicability in comparison with the synthesized mononuclear complexes and the reported catalysts.
efficient hydrosilylation,ligands,complexes,rare-earth,indolyl-based
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