Machine Learning for Large-Scale Optimization in 6G Wireless Networks

arxiv(2023)

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摘要
The sixth generation (6G) wireless systems are envisioned to enable the paradigm shift from "connected things" to "connected intelligence", featured by ultra high density, large-scale, dynamic heterogeneity, diversified functional requirements, and machine learning capabilities, which leads to a growing need for highly efficient intelligent algorithms. The classic optimization-based algorithms usually require highly precise mathematical model of data links and suffer from poor performance with high computational cost in realistic 6G applications. Based on domain knowledge (e.g., optimization models and theoretical tools), machine learning (ML) stands out as a promising and viable methodology for many complex large-scale optimization problems in 6G, due to its superior performance, computational efficiency, scalability, and generalizability. In this paper, we systematically review the most representative "learning to optimize" techniques in diverse domains of 6G wireless networks by identifying the inherent feature of the underlying optimization problem and investigating the specifically designed ML frameworks from the perspective of optimization. In particular, we will cover algorithm unrolling, learning to branch-and-bound, graph neural network for structured optimization, deep reinforcement learning for stochastic optimization, end-to-end learning for semantic optimization, as well as wireless federated learning for distributed optimization, which are capable of addressing challenging large-scale problems arising from a variety of crucial wireless applications. Through the in-depth discussion, we shed light on the excellent performance of ML-based optimization algorithms with respect to the classical methods, and provide insightful guidance to develop advanced ML techniques in 6G networks. Neural network design, theoretical tools of different ML methods, implementation issues, as well as challenges and future research directions are also discussed to support the practical use of the ML model in 6G wireless networks.
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关键词
Large-scale optimization,machine learning,deep neural network,6G,large-scale networks,wireless communications,learning to optimize,non-convex optimization
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