Global Nash Equilibrium in Non-convex Multi-player Game: Theory and Algorithms


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Wide machine learning tasks can be formulated as non-convex multi-player games, where Nash equilibrium (NE) is an acceptable solution to all players, since no one can benefit from changing its strategy unilaterally. Attributed to the non-convexity, obtaining the existence condition of global NE is challenging, let alone designing theoretically guaranteed realization algorithms. This paper takes conjugate transformation to the formulation of non-convex multi-player games, and casts the complementary problem into a variational inequality (VI) problem with a continuous pseudo-gradient mapping. We then prove the existence condition of global NE: the solution to the VI problem satisfies a duality relation. Based on this VI formulation, we design a conjugate-based ordinary differential equation (ODE) to approach global NE, which is proved to have an exponential convergence rate. To make the dynamics more implementable, we further derive a discretized algorithm. We apply our algorithm to two typical scenarios: multi-player generalized monotone game and multi-player potential game. In the two settings, we prove that the step-size setting is required to be $\mathcal{O}(1/k)$ and $\mathcal{O}(1/\sqrt k)$ to yield the convergence rates of $\mathcal{O}(1/ k)$ and $\mathcal{O}(1/\sqrt k)$, respectively. Extensive experiments in robust neural network training and sensor localization are in full agreement with our theory.
global nash equilibrium,nash equilibrium,game,non-convex,multi-player
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