Graph Adversarial Immunization for Certifiable Robustness

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING(2024)

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摘要
Despite achieving great success, graph neural networks (GNNs) are vulnerable to adversarial attacks. Existing defenses focus on developing adversarial training or model modification. In this paper, we propose and formulate graph adversarial immunization, i.e., vaccinating part of graph structure to improve certifiable robustness of graph against any admissible adversarial attack. We first propose edge-level immunization to vaccinate node pairs. Unfortunately, such edge-level immunization cannot defend against emerging node injection attacks, since it only immunizes existing node pairs. To this end, we further propose node-level immunization. To avoid computationally intensive combinatorial optimization associated with adversarial immunization, we develop AdvImmune-Edge and AdvImmune-Node algorithms to effectively obtain the immune node pairs or nodes. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of AdvImmune methods. In particular, AdvImmune-Node remarkably improves the ratio of robust nodes by 79$\%$%, 294$\%$%, and 100$\%$%, after immunizing only 5$\%$% of nodes. Furthermore, AdvImmune methods show excellent defensive performance against various attacks, outperforming state-of-the-art defenses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to improve certifiable robustness from graph data perspective without losing performance on clean graphs, providing new insights into graph adversarial learning.
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关键词
Adversarial attack,adversarial immunization,certifiable robustness,graph neural networks,node classification
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