Meningeal origins and dynamics of perivascular fibroblast development on the mouse cerebral vasculature


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Perivascular fibroblasts (PVFs) are a fibroblast-like cell type that reside on large-diameter blood vessels in the adult meninges and central nervous system (CNS). PVFs drive fibrosis following injury but their homeostatic functions are not well detailed. In mice, PVFs were previously shown to be absent from most brain regions at birth and are only detected postnatally within the cerebral cortex. However, the origin, timing, and cellular mechanisms of PVF development are not known. We used Col1a1-GFP and Col1a2-CreERT transgenic mice to track PVF developmental timing and progression in postnatal mice. Using a combination of lineage tracing and in vivo imaging we show that brain PVFs originate from the meninges and are first seen on parenchymal cerebrovasculature at postnatal day (P)5. After P5, PVF coverage of the cerebrovasculature rapidly expands via mechanisms of local cell proliferation and migration from the meninges, reaching adult levels at P14. Finally, we show that PVFs and perivascular macrophages (PVMs) develop concurrently along postnatal cerebral blood vessels, where the location and depth of PVMs and PVFs highly correlate. These findings provide the first complete timeline for PVF development in the brain, enabling future work into how PVF development is coordinated with cell types and structures in and around the perivascular spaces to support normal CNS vascular function. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
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