Digital eye strain in young screen users: A systematic review.

Preventive medicine(2023)

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Digital eye strain (DES) or computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a phenomenon linked to ever increasing digital screen use globally, affecting a large number of individuals. Recognizing causative and alleviating factors of DES may help establish appropriate policies. We aimed to review factors that aggravate or alleviate DES symptoms in young, i.e. pre-presbyopic (< 40 years old), digital device users. We searched PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane, Trip Database, and grey literature up to 1st July 2021. Among a plethora of studies with heterogeneous diagnostic criteria for DES, we only included those using a validated questionnaire for the diagnosis and evaluating associated factors in young subjects. Relevant data were extracted, risk of bias assessment of the included studies and GRADE evaluation of each outcome were performed. Ten studies were included (five interventional, five observational) involving 2365 participants. Evidence coming from studies with moderate risk of bias suggested that blue-blocking filters do not appear to prevent DES (2 studies, 130 participants), while use of screens for > 4-5 h/day (2 studies, 461 participants) and poor ergonomic parameters during screen use (1 study, 200 participants) are associated with higher DES symptoms' score. GRADE evaluation for the outcomes of blue-blocking filters and duration of screen use showed low to moderate quality of evidence. It appears advisable to optimize ergonomic parameters and restrict screen use duration, for minimizing DES symptoms. Health professionals and policy makers may consider recommending such practices for digital screen users at work or leisure. There is no evidence for use of blue-blocking filters.
Children,Computer vision syndrome,Digital eye strain,Screen,Users,Young
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