Heavy metal contamination of river Yamuna, Haryana, India: Assessment by Metal Enrichment Factor of the Sediments.

Journal of Hazardous Materials(2009)

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Concentration of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni) in water, plants and sediments of river Yamuna flowing in Haryana through Delhi are reported here selecting 14 stations covering the upstream and downstream sites of major industrial complexes of the State. Some important characteristics of river water and sediments (pH, EC, Cl−, SO32−, and PO43− in water and sediments, COD of water and organic matter content of sediments) were also analysed and inter-relationships of all these parameters with heavy metal concentration in different compartments were examined. The sediments of the river show significant enrichment with Cd and Ni indicating inputs from industrial sources. Concentrations of Cr are moderate and show high enrichment values only at a few sites. Enrichment factor for Fe is found to be <1, showing insignificant effect of anthropogenic flux. Concentrations of these metals in river water are generally high exceeding the standard maximum permissible limits prescribed for drinking water, particularly in the downstream sites. The aquatic plants show maximum accumulation of Fe. The other heavy metals Cd, Cr and Ni, though less in concentration, show some accumulation in the plants growing in contaminated sites. Interrelationships of metal concentration with important characteristics of water and sediment have been analysed. Analysis of heavy metals in water, sediments and littoral flora in the stretch of river Yamuna is first study of itself and interrelationship of metal concentration and other important characteristics make the study significant and interesting in analysing the pollution load at different points of the river body.
Enrichment,Heavy metals,River,Plants,Sediments,Water
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