An Overview of the Use of Precision Population Medicine in Cancer Care: First of a Series.
Advances in science and technology in the past century and a half have helped improve disease management, prevention, and early diagnosis and better health maintenance. These have led to a longer life expectancy in most developed and middle-income countries. However, resource- and infrastructure-scarce countries and populations have not enjoyed these benefits. Furthermore, in every society, including in developed nations, the lag time from new advances, either in the laboratory or from clinical trials, to using those findings in day-to-day medical practice often takes many years and sometimes close to or longer than a decade. A similar trend is seen in the application of "precision medicine" (PM) in terms of improving population health (PH). One of the reasons for such lack of application of precision medicine in population health is the misunderstanding of equating precision medicine with genomic medicine (GM) as if they are the same. Precision medicine needs to be recognized as encompassing genomic medicine in addition to other new developments such as big data analytics, electronic health records (EHR), telemedicine, and information communication technology. By leveraging these new developments together and applying well-tested epidemiological concepts, it can be posited that population/public health can be improved. In this paper, we take cancer as an example of the benefits of recognizing the potential of precision medicine in applying it to population/public health. Breast cancer and cervical cancer are taken as examples to demonstrate these hypotheses. There exists significant evidence already to show the importance of recognizing "precision population medicine" (PPM) in improving cancer outcomes not only in individual patients but also for its applications in early detection and cancer screening (especially in high-risk populations) and achieving those goals in a more cost-efficient manner that can reach resource- and infrastructure-scarce societies and populations. This is the first report of a series that will focus on individual cancer sites in the future.更多
artificial intelligence,big data,genomic medicine,multi-cancer early detection,precision medicine,precision population medicine