Breast Cancer with Brain Metastasis: Molecular Insights and Clinical Management.


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Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy worldwide and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women. Brain metastases are a primary contributor to mortality, as they often go undetected until late stages due to their dormant nature. Moreover, the clinical management of brain metastases is complicated by the relevant issue of blood-brain barrier penetration. The molecular pathways involved in the formation, progression, and colonization of primary breast tumors and subsequent brain metastases are diverse, posing significant hurdles due to the heterogeneous nature of breast cancer subtypes. Despite advancements in primary breast cancer treatments, the prognosis for patients with brain metastases remains poor. In this review, we aim to highlight the biological mechanisms of breast cancer brain metastases by evaluating multi-step genetic pathways and to discuss currently available and emerging treatment strategies to propose a prospective overview of the management of this complex disease.
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