Ubiquitination of GRK2 Is Required for the -Arrestin-Biased Signaling Pathway of Dopamine D2 Receptors to Activate ERK Kinases

International journal of molecular sciences(2023)

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A class-A GPCR dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) plays a critical role in the proper functioning of neuronal circuits through the downstream activation of both G-protein- and & beta;-arrestin-dependent signaling pathways. Understanding the signaling pathways downstream of D2R is critical for developing effective therapies with which to treat dopamine (DA)-related disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Extensive studies have focused on the regulation of D2R-mediated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling; however, the manner in which ERKs are activated upon the stimulation of a specific signaling pathway of D2R remains unclear. The present study conducted a variety of experimental techniques, including loss-of-function experiments, site-directed mutagenesis, and the determination of protein interactions, in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying & beta;-arrestin-biased signaling-pathway-mediated ERK activation. We found that the stimulation of the D2R & beta;-arrestin signaling pathway caused Mdm2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to move from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and interact with tyrosine phosphorylated G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), which was facilitated by Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase. This interaction led to the ubiquitination of GRK2, which then moved to the plasma membrane and interacted with activated D2R, followed by the phosphorylation of D2R as well as the mediation of ERK activation. In conclusion, Mdm2-mediated GRK2 ubiquitination, which is selectively triggered by the stimulation of the D2R & beta;-arrestin signaling pathway, is necessary for GRK2 membrane translocation and its interaction with D2R, which in turn mediates downstream ERK signaling. This study is primarily novel and provides essential information with which to better understand the detailed mechanisms of D2R-dependent signaling.
dopamine d2 receptors,grk2,signaling pathway,arrestin-biased
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