Deciphering Lung Adenocarcinoma Heterogeneity: An Overview of Pathological and Clinical Features of Rare Subtypes.

Life (Basel, Switzerland)(2023)

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Lung cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide and the leading cause of cancer-related death. The 2021 World Health Organization (WHO) classification provided a detailed and updated categorization of lung adenocarcinomas with a special focus on rare histological types, including enteric, fetal and colloid types, as well as not otherwise specified adenocarcinoma, overall accounting for about 5-10% of all cases. However, rare entities are nowadays difficult to diagnose in most centers, and evidence of optimal therapeutic management for these patients is still lacking. In recent years, increasing knowledge about the mutational profile of lung cancer, in addition to the spreading diffusion of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in different centers, have been helpful in the identification of rare variants of lung cancer. Hence, the hope is that several new drugs will be available in the near future to treat these rare lung tumors, such as in targeted therapy and immunotherapy, which are often used in clinical practice for several malignancies. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the molecular pathology and clinical management of the most common rare adenocarcinoma subtypes in order to provide a concise and updated report that can drive clinicians' choices in their routine practice.
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