Emerging trends in nano-based antidiabetic therapeutics: a path to effective diabetes management


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Diabetes mellitus is characterized by altered blood sugar homeostasis. Diabetic mortality rates are escalating in developed countries by the day. Currently, no effective treatment and management options are available for diabetic therapy. The popularly used conventional treatment options are expensive and pose several shortcomings. This necessitates immediate development of inexpensive nano-based antidiabetic therapeutics. With the advent of nano-bio research, effective design and development of antidiabetic therapeutics and sensing devices have shown a remarkable future and attracted immense attention from the scientific community. Explicitly, the characteristics of nanoparticles would enhance bioavailability, specificity, absorption, and biocompatibility. Thus, nanocarriers or nanomaterials are a preferred choice. This study primarily focuses on the functionalization and therapeutic implications of nano-based drugs. Herein, synthesis of nanoparticles popularly used in diabetes therapy are explored. This encompasses functionalization of nanoparticles with organic or inorganic molecules, plant extracts, and other moieties. Furthermore, the therapeutic potential of these functionalized nanoparticles was also demonstrated. In this, applications such as nano therapy mediated by nano-based antidiabetic drugs, nano sensors for monitoring and detection of diabetes, and diabetic complications such as wound healing treatment are comprehensively described. Challenges and future trends are also emphasized for effective nanoformulation of antidiabetic drugs as an ultimate therapy.
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