Particulate matter pollution and non-targeted analysis of polar compounds in three regions of Brazil

Simone A. Pozza, Priscila B. Gonçalves, Felipe C. Wouters, Josiane A.S. Vendemiatti, Danilo C. Nogarotto, Edenir R. Pereira-Filho, Daniela M.M. Osório,Lincoln L. Romualdo, Joeci R. Godoi,Leonardo Hoinaski,Roberta C. Urban


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Atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) is a pollutant with diverse origins, exhibiting varying chemical compositions, and undergoes several molecular transformations in the atmosphere. In this study, PM samples (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) were collected in five Brazilian cities (Camboriú-SC; Catalão-GO; Florianópolis-SC; Limeira-SP and Novo Hamburgo-RS) during the four seasons of the year. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences between each city and season in PM concentration. PM10 average concentrations were higher in the city of Limeira, compared to the other (ANOVA p-values and Tukey's test). Moreover, Tukey's test demonstrated differences between the average PM10 concentrations in summer and winter. Regarding TSP and PM2.5, Tukey's test showed differences between winter and warm seasons (spring and summer). Moreover, polar compounds from the samples collected in the summer (February) and winter (August) periods were analyzed (Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer) following a non-targeted approach and annotated. This is the first study to carry out this type of analysis in these five Brazilian cities. Despite the differences in PM concentrations, profiles of polar organic compounds, showed similarities between samples/and, in general, the same compounds were present, albeit with different intensities. The annotated compounds are associated with vehicle emissions and plastics, which are considered important global air polluters. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity for comprehensive studies aimed at investigating the non-targeted compounds existing in the atmosphere. Such research can provide invaluable insights to policymakers, enabling them to formulate effective guidelines and policies to mitigate particulate matter concentration and enhance overall air quality.
UPLC-Q-ToF,PM concentration,Atmospheric pollution,Statistical analysis,Brazil
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