A Search for Pulsars around Sgr A* in the First Event Horizon Telescope Data Set

Pablo Torne,Kuo Liu,Ralph P. Eatough, Jompoj Wongphechauxsorn,James M. Cordes,Gregory Desvignes,Mariafelicia De Laurentis,Michael Kramer,Scott M. Ransom,Shami Chatterjee,Robert Wharton,Ramesh Karuppusamy,Lindy Blackburn,Michael Janssen,Chi-Kwan Chan,Geoffrey B. Crew,Lynn D. Matthews,Ciriaco Goddi,Helge Rottmann,Jan Wagner,Salvador Sanchez, Ignacio Ruiz,Federico Abbate,Geoffrey C. Bower, Juan J. Salamanca,Arturo I. Gomez-Ruiz, Alfredo Herrera-Aguilar,Wu Jiang,Ru-Sen Lu,Ue-Li Pen, Alexander W. Raymond,Lijing Shao,Zhiqiang Shen,Gabriel Paubert,Miguel Sanchez-Portal,Carsten Kramer,Manuel Castillo,Santiago Navarro,David John,Karl-Friedrich Schuster,Michael D. Johnson,Kazi L. J. Rygl,Kazunori Akiyama,Antxon Alberdi,Walter Alef,Juan Carlos Algaba,Richard Anantua,Keiichi Asada,Rebecca Azulay,Uwe Bach,Anne-Kathrin Baczko,David Ball,Mislav Balokovic,John Barrett,Michi Baubock,Bradford A. Benson,Dan Bintley, Raymond Blundell,Katherine L. Bouman,Hope Boyce,Michael Bremer,Christiaan D. Brinkerink,Roger Brissenden,Silke Britzen,Avery E. Broderick,Dominique Broguiere,Thomas Bronzwaer,Sandra Bustamante,Do-Young Byun,John E. Carlstrom,Chiara Ceccobello,Andrew Chael,Dominic O. Chang,Koushik Chatterjee,Ming-Tang Chen,Yongjun Chen,Xiaopeng Cheng,Ilje Cho,Pierre Christian,Nicholas S. Conroy,John E. Conway,Thomas M. Crawford,Alejandro Cruz-Osorio,Yuzhu Cui,Rohan Dahale,Jordy Davelaar,Roger Deane,Jessica Dempsey,Jason Dexter,Vedant Dhruv,Sheperd S. Doeleman,Sean Dougal,Sergio A. Dzib,Razieh Emami,Heino Falcke,Joseph Farah,Vincent L. Fish,Ed Fomalont, H. Alyson Ford, Marianna Foschi, Raquel Fraga-Encinas,William T. Freeman,Per Friberg, Cistian M. Fromm,Antonio Fuentes, Peter Galison,Charles F. Gammie,Roberto Garcia, Olivier Gentaz, Boris Georgiev,Roman Gold, Jose L. Gomez,Minfeng Gu, Mark Gurwell,Kazuhiro Hada,Daryl Haggard, Kari Haworth, Michael H. Hecht, Ronald Hesper, Dirk Heumann,Luis C. Ho,Paul Ho, Mareki Honma,Chih-Wei L. Huang,Lei Huang,David H. Hughes, Shiro Ikeda, C. M. Violette Impellizzeri,Makoto Inoue, Sara Issaoun,David J. James, Buell T. Jannuzi, Britton Jeter, Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales, Svetlana Jorstad, Abhishek V. Joshi,Taehyun Jung, Mansour Karami, Tomohisa Kawashima, Garrett K. Keating, Mark Kettenis,Dong-Jin Kim,Jae-Young Kim,Jongsoo Kim, Junhan Kim, Motoki Kino, Jun Yi Koay,Prashant Kocherlakota, Yutaro Kofuji, Shoko Koyama, Thomas P. Krichbaum,Cheng-Yu Kuo, Noemi La Bella,Tod R. Lauer,Daeyoung Lee, Sang-Sung Lee, Po Kin Leung,Aviad Levis, Zhiyuan Li, Rocco Lico, Greg Lindahl, Michael Lindqvist, Mikhail Lisakov, Jun Liu, Elisabetta Liuzzo,Wen-Ping Lo, Andrei P. Lobanov, Laurent Loinard, Colin J. Lonsdale, Nicholas R. MacDonald, Jirong Mao, Nicola Marchili,Sera Markoff, Daniel P. Marrone,Alan P. Marscher, Ivan Marti-Vidal,Satoki Matsushita, Lia Medeiros,Karl M. Menten, Daniel Michalik,Izumi Mizuno,Yosuke Mizuno,James M. Moran, Kotaro Moriyama, Monika Moscibrodzka, Cornelia Mueller, Hendrik Mueller,Alejandro Mus, Gibwa Musoke, Ioannis Myserlis, Andrew Nadolski,Hiroshi Nagai, Neil M. Nagar,Masanori Nakamura, Ramesh Narayan,Gopal Narayanan, Iniyan Natarajan, Antonios Nathanail, Joey Neilsen, Roberto Neri, Chunchong Ni, Aristeidis Noutsos,Michael A. Nowak, Junghwan Oh, Hiroki Okino, Hector Olivares, Gisela N. Ortiz-Leon, Tomoaki Oyama,Feryal Ozel, Daniel C. M. Palumbo, Georgios Filippos Paraschos,Jongho Park,Harriet Parsons,Nimesh Patel, Dominic W. Pesce, Vincent Pietu, Richard Plambeck, Aleksandar PopStefanija, Oliver Porth,Felix M. Potzl, Ben Prather, Jorge A. Preciado-Lopez, Dimitrios Psaltis, Hung-Yi Pu, Venkatessh Ramakrishnan, Ramprasad Rao, Mark G. Rawlings,Luciano Rezzolla, Angelo Ricarte, Bart Ripperda, Freek Roelofs,Alan Rogers,Eduardo Ros, Cristina Romero-Canizales, Arash Roshanineshat, Alan L. Roy, Chet Ruszczyk, David Sanchez-Arguelles,Mahito Sasada, Kaushik Satapathy,Tuomas Savolainen, F. Peter Schloerb, Jonathan Schonfeld, Des Small, Bong Won Sohn,Jason SooHoo, Kamal Souccar, He Sun, Alexandra J. Tetarenko, Paul Tiede, Remo P. J. Tilanus, Michael Titus, Teresa Toscano, Efthalia Traianou, Tyler Trent,Sascha Trippe,Matthew Turk, Ilse van Bemmel, Huib Jan van Langevelde, Daniel R. van Rossum,Jesse Vos,Derek Ward-Thompson, John Wardle,Jonathan Weintroub, Norbert Wex, Maciek Wielgus, Kaj Wiik, Gunther Witzel, Michael F. Wondrak, George N. Wong,Qingwen Wu, Nitika Yadlapalli, Paul Yamaguchi,Aristomenis Yfantis, Doosoo Yoon, Andre Young, Ken Young,Ziri Younsi, Wei Yu,Feng Yuan,Ye-Fei Yuan, J. Anton Zensus, Shuo Zhang, Guang-Yao Zhao, Shan-Shan Zhao

The Astrophysical Journal(2023)

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摘要
In 2017 the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), at a frequency of 228.1 GHz (lambda = 1.3 mm). The fundamental physics tests that even a single pulsar orbiting Sgr A* would enable motivate searching for pulsars in EHT data sets. The high observing frequency means that pulsars-which typically exhibit steep emission spectra-are expected to be very faint. However, it also negates pulse scattering, an effect that could hinder pulsar detections in the Galactic center. Additionally, magnetars or a secondary inverse Compton emission could be stronger at millimeter wavelengths than at lower frequencies. We present a search for pulsars close to Sgr A* using the data from the three most sensitive stations in the EHT 2017 campaign: the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, the Large Millimeter Telescope, and the IRAM 30 m Telescope. We apply three detection methods based on Fourier-domain analysis, the fast folding algorithm, and single-pulse searches targeting both pulsars and burst-like transient emission. We use the simultaneity of the observations to confirm potential candidates. No new pulsars or significant bursts were found. Being the first pulsar search ever carried out at such high radio frequencies, we detail our analysis methods and give a detailed estimation of the sensitivity of the search. We conclude that the EHT 2017 observations are only sensitive to a small fraction (less than or similar to 2.2%) of the pulsars that may exist close to Sgr A*, motivating further searches for fainter pulsars in the region.
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关键词
Radio pulsars,Pulsars,Magnetars,Neutron stars,Black hole physics,Period search
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