BillingOpsSC: Smart Contract-based Service Billing Management Method for Consortium Blockchain-based Systems.
Enterprises have paid attention to consortium blockchains, in which multiple authorized organizations participate to form a consortium, in contrast to public blockchains, which consist of unspecified participants. Since a system using a blockchain is based on participants providing/using resources such as nodes to each other, a mechanism to motivate participants to provide resources is important. Typically, a public blockchain realizes an incentive mechanism for providing nodes by unspecified participants through mining rewards and transaction fees associated with a consensus algorithm such as PoW on the platform layer. On the other hand, a consortium blockchain usually does not have an incentive mechanism in the platform itself. In order to maintain and operate a consortium, it is essential that participating organizations provide resources or pay the costs of providing resources. However, because participating organizations use different percentages of the resources, a uniform fee could cause unfairness among the organizations. Therefore, it is necessary to manage billing to remove the gap between the costs borne and the actual usage or/and the unfairness among participants in the consortium. This research aims to realize a billing management method for consortium blockchain-based systems. We propose a smart contract-based service billing management mechanism named "BillingOpsSC" to ensure cross-organizational transparency for billing calculation and management. Furthermore, to ensure fairness among participants, we design a billing calculation model based on metering of the "contribution" by each organization such as providing resources, and the system "usage" by each organization, in the consortium. We implement a prototype of the proposed method including the billing management mechanism and calculation model for Hyperledger Fabric, which is one of the major consortium blockchains, and evaluate the method using the prototype. The results show that our proposed method is effective in ensuring transparency and fairness in billing management among multiple organizations.更多