Association of metals with the risk and clinical characteristics of Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism & Related Disorders(2018)

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•Clinical evidence on the implication of metal in Parkinson's disease (PD) is rare.•Higher copper level in serum is associated with a decreased PD risk.•Higher copper or lower iron is associated with levodopa-induced dyskinesia in women.•Serum copper level is negatively correlated with MMSE scores in PD patients.•There are associations between serum metals and PD risk or clinical presentation.
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Key words
Parkinson's disease,Blood serum,Copper,Iron,Dyskinesia,Levodopa,Biomarker
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